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Форум » Выпуск 2015 » Culture Study » Australia (Australia - Culture and Traditions)
Australia
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Вторник, 14.10.2014, 00:08 | Сообщение # 1
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I am happy to welcome you here!
We begin our new project concerning Australia!
The first deadline is 30.01.2015!

 The results
 
НастяДата: Вторник, 20.01.2015, 19:47 | Сообщение # 2
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Dance in Australia includes a very broad variety of styles, from Indigenous Australian to the traditional Australian bush dance and from classical ballet, and ballroom dancing to contemporary dance and multicultural dance traditions from the 200 national backgrounds represented in Australia. 
Indigenous Australian dance Australian Aboriginal dancers in 1981. Traditional Indigenous Australian dance was closely associated with song and was understood and experienced as making present the reality of the Dream time. In some instances, they would imitate the actions of a particular animal in the process of telling a story. For the people in their own country it defined to roles, responsibilities and the place itself. These ritual performances gave them an understanding of themselves in the interplay of social, geographical and environmental forces. The performances were associated with specific places and dance grounds were often sacred places. Body decoration and specific gestures related to kin and other relationships (such as to Dream time beings with which individuals and groups). For a number of Indigenous Australian groups their dances were secret and or sacred, gender could also be an important factor in some ceremonies with men and women having separate ceremonial traditions. The term Corroboree is commonly used in general Australian culture to refer to Australian Aboriginal dances, however this term has its origins among the people of the Sydney region. In a number of places Australian Aboriginal people will perform "corroborees" for tourists. In the latter part of the 20th century the influence of Indigenous Australian dance traditions has been seen with the development of concert dance, particularly in contemporary dance with the National Aboriginal Islander Skills Development Association and the Aboriginal Center for the Performing Arts (ACPA) providing training to Indigenous Australians in dance and the Bangarra Dance Theater.

Добавлено (20.01.2015, 19:47)
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ArtemДата: Четверг, 29.01.2015, 12:40 | Сообщение # 3
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The History of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies. Aboriginal Australians are believed to have first arrived on the Australian mainland by sea from Maritime Southeast Asia between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago. The artistic, musical and spiritual traditions they established are among the longest surviving such traditions in human history.

The first known landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606. Twenty-nine other Dutch navigators explored the western and southern coasts in the 17th century, and dubbed the continent New Holland. Macassan trepangers visited Australia's northern coasts after 1720, possibly earlier. Other European explorers followed until, in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook charted the East Coast of Australia for the UK and returned with accounts favouring colonisation at Botany Bay (now in Sydney), New South Wales.

A First Fleet of British ships arrived at Botany Bay in January 1788 to establish a penal colony. In the century that followed, the British established other colonies on the continent, and European explorers ventured into its interior. Indigenous Australians were greatly weakened and their numbers diminished by introduced diseases and conflict with the colonists during this period.

Gold rushes and agricultural industries brought prosperity. Autonomous Parliamentary democracies began to be established throughout the six British colonies from the mid-19th century. The colonies voted by referendum to unite in a federation in 1901, and modern Australia came into being. Australia fought on the side of Britain in the two world wars and became a long-standing ally of the United States when threatened by Imperial Japan during World War II. Trade with Asia increased and a post-war immigration program received more than 6.5 million migrants from every continent. Supported by immigration of people from more than 200 countries since the end of World War Two, the population increased to more than 23 million by 2014, and sustains the world's 12th largest national economy.
 
DumbassДата: Пятница, 30.01.2015, 12:44 | Сообщение # 4
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Flora of Australia

The flora of Australia differs in an exclusive originality. The most characteristic representatives of flora are the eucalyptus and an acacia, their hundreds of types. So, the best-known tree of Australia - an eucalyptus - totals more than 500 types, beginning from 90-meter giants in the foothills of east coast and finishing dwarfish eucalyptuses, characteristic for semidesertic areas and superficially resembling a usual bushThe Australian breeds of trees have solid wood which resists to the corroding effect of sea water, an insect, for a long time doesn't give in to rotting. They are of great value as construction material.

Before arrival of Europeans in Australia didn't grow any of cultural plants known for it. All these plants, and their specific structure is nowadays extremely wide (easier to tell that not grown up in Australia), were delivered from other parts of the world.In no small measure the wide circulation of eucalyptuses was promoted by remarkable property to drain boggy soils. Thanks to these natural pumps at us in the country bogs of Colchis on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus were drained. Isn't that so, paradoxical property of a plant which got used to exist in the conditions of droughty climate?! But in Australia this property doesn't promote its prosperity at all. As eucalyptuses dry the soil, farmers conduct with them uncompromising struggle. For this purpose round trunks on bark notches become, and trees dry up after a while
 
SashaДата: Пятница, 30.01.2015, 21:28 | Сообщение # 5
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Every year many tourists come to Sydney to see the world-famous Opera House, the Harbour Bridge is amazing, the majestic Sydney Tower and many other attractions. But for those wishing to experience the true delight — there's nothing better than the Sydney Aquarium. This structure is quite young, it was opened on the occasion of the solemn celebration of 200 anniversary of Australia in 1988 year. today, it is one of the largest facilities of its kind in the world, and its popularity is hard to overestimate, because Aquarium is the first landmark in terms of the number of tickets bought. There are a wide variety of marine ecosystems and the large number of amazing inhabitants. underscores the fragile and complex nature of unique aquatic environments of the continent of Australia. In the Aquarium, there are several exhibitions: "open ocean", "resident sea lions", "Southern Ocean", "great barrier reef", "the mermaid's Lagoon". One of the earliest was built "resident sea lions", here you can examine in detail the life, Australian and New Zealand subantarctic fur seals. Oceanarium was rebuilt twice, in 1991 and 2003 respectively, and now to monitor these delightful animals are observation platforms on the top and bottom of the glass walls of the underwater Tunnelya. Undoubtedly the most exciting is the open ocean, where the huge collection of sharks. Some of the inhabitants of this Pavilion are long up to 3 metres and weigh about 300 kg. Observation of the graceful movement of the sharks, going at arm's length from the walls of the tunnel, is, at the very least, a storm with what incomparable unforgettable emotions. The year 1998 is the great barrier reef Oceanarium, which posted about 6 thousands of amazing animals and contains 2.6 million gallons of water it shows tropical aquatic fauna and flora. There is also the so-called "Theatre of the reef", which through the window thickness 26 cm and an area of 28 square meters provides stunning views of the coral Canyon. The most recent of discovered oceanariums (2008, 2011) is the "Mermaid's Lagoon", which is the permanent home to the  dugongs and Guinea pig from the conveniently located by surface and underwater tunnels. here you can see and the other inhabitants, including: fish-guitar, rays bat family, Ray and shark zoopitomnik.
Прикрепления: 3674893.jpg(310.3 Kb) · 6613403.jpg(57.1 Kb) · 6158645.jpg(113.4 Kb)


Сообщение отредактировал Sasha - Пятница, 30.01.2015, 21:52
 
LizaДата: Пятница, 30.01.2015, 21:58 | Сообщение # 6
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Australian cuisine is one of the most diverse and mixed cuisines of the world. Based on the Anglo-Irish tradition, it has absorbed a huge number of culinary techniques Asian cuisine, especially Japanese, Chinese and Malay.

Meat products play a key role alongside the traditional Australian steak with blood, as well as lamb and pork all sorts of ways of cooking, widely used rabbit, kangaroo, ostrich, crocodile, opossum, or "local delicacies" of beetles and larvae "witchetty".

Popular meat pie with puff pastry - Pai" marinated beef fillet with curry-spinach and thick sauce "bitrot" great steak "capital", kangaroo sauce "quandong" ("sweet peach"), meals from the series "Bush Tucker" (coals), chickens "Melbourne" sauce, steak kangaroo meat with mushrooms and salad rolled tubes of thin slices of ham and Asian "satay". Smoked ribs popular along with bacon or pizza, Chinese fried rice with chicken is in addition to the spicy soup "Tom Yam", and the Mediterranean "dolma" is found at least Russian dumplings. As light snacks popular "roll-sandwiches - stranded in the roll sandwiches with all kinds of fillings, as well as "Vegemite" - thick dark mass of vegetables and dough, spread on bread.

Fish, oysters, mussels, scallops, octopus, crabs, shrimp and a variety of other seafood are also an integral part of the Australian table. Preparation methods are endless, but increasingly popular in this sector are becoming Asian recipes, when the product is consumed almost raw, or Vice versa - is treated to full recognition, but always accompanied by a delicious sauce or rice. Australian national dish is considered a Barracuda (especially caught near Cleveland), and baked in the coals and herbs trout, salmon from Tasmania and fish "barramundi". For fish or meat is often served "chutney" is a spicy condiment made from apples with the addition of ginger, cloves and vinegar.

Great local vegetables are for making all kinds of salads. As far as the amount of fruits and berries on the table, the country clearly is among the world leaders - BlackBerry, kiwi, mango, papaya, lychee, avocado, citrus and other tropical fruits are not only consumed as a standalone dessert, but includes as ingredients in many dishes. About 20% of australijska plants are edible.

Widely used exotic local fruit and vegetables - "iberis", the seeds of Australian acacia, nuts "Banja" leaves of pepper, plum-cockatoo and much more.
National desserts are considered "Pavlov" - kiwi with meringue and fresh cream, covered with chocolate and sprinkled with coconut crumb cake "Lamington", biscuits of Arnott and "anzacs" biscuits of oatmeal with coconut.

 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Четверг, 05.02.2015, 18:05 | Сообщение # 7
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Цитата Настя ()
as making present the reality of the Dream time - demonstrating the reality of the Dream time (maybe ist is better in this way?)
Цитата Настя ()
and or sacred - either AND or OR - you shall choose one word

It was a pleasure to read the information and watch the wvdeo! You get 5!
 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Четверг, 05.02.2015, 18:19 | Сообщение # 8
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Цитата Dumbass ()
Before THE arrival of Europeans  no cultural plants grew in Australia 
Цитата Dumbass ()
Thanks to these natural pumps at us in the country bogs of Colchis on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus were drained. - can't atch the meaning
Цитата Dumbass ()
conduct with them uncompromising struggle - struggle daily 
Be more attentive with the word order. The mark is 5-
 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Четверг, 05.02.2015, 19:13 | Сообщение # 9
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Цитата Sasha ()
the amazing Harbour Bridge
 
Цитата Sasha ()
There  isa wide variety
Цитата Sasha ()
where the huge collection of sharks is located
Be more attentive! The mark is 5!
       
 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Четверг, 05.02.2015, 19:19 | Сообщение # 10
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Цитата Liza ()
widely used rabbit - rabbits, etc are widely used
Цитата Liza ()
at least in Russian dumplings
 
Цитата Liza ()
are becoming Asian recipes - Asian recipes are becoming
Цитата Liza ()
Australian national dish is considered a Barracuda - Barracuda is considered to be an Australian national dish
Be more attentive with the word order! The mark is 5-
 
LizaДата: Воскресенье, 15.02.2015, 22:50 | Сообщение # 11
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places of Interest in Australia
Australia is one of the biggest countries in the world. Besides, it’s the only country, which is also a continent. For many other world countries Australia is a remote land to visit, nevertheless, millions of people gladly fly there to see its places of interest. The capital of Australia is Canberra. It’s not as large as Sydney or Melbourne, but it has an important political meaning for the country. All the governmental and parliamentary buildings are situated there. Canberra is also the home of many cultural institutions, such as Australian National University, National Gallery, National Museum, Royal Military College, Australian Institute of Sport and many others. The largest and the most visited city in Australia is Sydney. With the population over 4.6 million people, the city hosts 2.7 million international tourists a year. There is a great number of attractions in Sydney. The most well-known ones are Sydney Opera House, Sydney Harbour Bridge, St Mary's Catholic Cathedral, Royal Botanical Gardens, Luna Park, Australian Museum of Natural History and Anthropology, Museum of Contemporary Art and several others. Another large city in Australia is Melbourne. The main sights of the city are the Federation Square, Fawkner Park, Queen Victoria Market, Royal Exhibition Building, Albert Park Lake and many other places. Particularly interesting are the natural attractions of Australia. For example, the country has some species of animals, which can’t be found anywhere else. Among them, koalas, kangaroos, wallabies, flightless emus, wombats and many others. So, the Australian Zoo, which is situated in a small town Beerwah, not far from Brisbane, can be another place of interest.


Добавлено (15.02.2015, 22:50)
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2) Being in Australia, do not miss the opportunity to visit one of the most famous attractions of the country, namely the incredibly large and beautiful artificial lake Burley Griffin. It is located in the heart of Canberra, and was created in 1964.

The lake is named after the talented architect Walter Burley Griffin, an American by birth, who designed the building in Canberra in the early 20th century. This artificial lake is the main decoration of the city, which has become a favorite destination for both local people and tourists from around the world. In addition, on the shores of Burley Griffin is the National Museum, Parliament House, State Library, the National Gallery and the Australian National University, as well as the Supreme Court.

Strolling along the lake and enjoying the sights around him, at the same time you can visit all of these sights and explore the history of the city and the country. Lake Burley Griffin is incredibly beautiful place, surrounded by parks and gardens where the locals spend their free time playing sports, visiting various festivals, competitions and presentation of fireworks. "Highlight" of the lakeside area is James Cook Memorial, which is decorated with a beautiful fountain and a model of the globe.

 
ArtemДата: Четверг, 19.02.2015, 19:27 | Сообщение # 12
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Australian aborigines, native people of Australia who probably first came from somewhere in Asia more than 40,000 years ago. Genetic evidence also suggests that c.4,000 years there was an additional migration of people who were related to the inhabitants of modern India. In 2001 the population of aborigines and Torres Straits Islanders was 366,429, 1.9% of the Australian population as a whole. The aboriginal population at the time of European colonization in the late 18th cent. has been estimated to have numbered between 300,000 and 800,000. At that time, there were 500–600 distinct groups of aborigines speaking about 200 different languages or dialects (at least 50 of which are now extinct). Although culturally diverse, these groups were not political and economic entities and lacked class hierarchies and chiefs. They lived by hunting and gathering, and there was extensive intergroup trade throughout the continent.
The aborigines have an intricate classification system that defines kinship relations and regulates marriages. The Kariera, for example, are divided into hordes, or local groups of about 30 people, which are divided into four classes, or sections. Membership in a section determines ritual and territorial claims. In half of the hordes the men are divided among the Karimera and Burung sections; in the other half they are divided among the Palyeri and Banaka sections. These sections are exogamous, and rules of marriage, descent, and residence determine how these sections interact: Karimera men must marry Palyeri women, and their children are Burung, and so on. Sons live in the same hordes as their fathers, so the composition of hordes alternates every generation. The complex system, by requiring each man to marry a woman from only one of the three possible sections, fosters a broad network of social relations and creates familial solidarity within the horde as a whole. Aborigines maintain elaborate systems of totemism (the belief that there is a genealogical relationship between people and species of plants or animals). They see the relationship between totemic plants and animals as a symbolic map of the relations between different people.
Contact with British settlers, beginning in 1788, initially led to economic marginalization, a loss of political autonomy, and death by disease. So-called pacification by force culminated in the late 1880s, leading to a massive depopulation and extinction for some groups. By the 1940s almost all aborigines were missionized and assimilated into rural and urban Australian society as low-paid laborers with limited rights; many aborigine children were taken from their natural parents and given to foster parents to promote assimilation.
In 1976 and 1993 the Australian government enacted land-rights legislation that has returned to the aborigines a degree of autonomy, and court decisions in 1992, 1996, and 2006 have recognized aboriginal property and native title rights. The recent increase in aboriginal population reflects improved living conditions and a broad and inclusive definition of aboriginal identity on the part of the government. Their average standard of living and life expectancy, however, are not comparable with that of most Australians. In 1999 the Australian government issued an official expression of regret for past mistreatment of aborigines but, concerned that it would encourage claims for compensation, did not issue the formal national apology sought by aboriginal leaders until 2008, when the government was led by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd. The election of Adam Giles as chief minister of Northern Territory in 2013 marked the first time that an aborigine headed a state-level government in Australia.


Сообщение отредактировал Artem - Четверг, 19.02.2015, 19:28
 
DumbassДата: Суббота, 21.02.2015, 17:35 | Сообщение # 13
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By the first feature film created in Australia include "Early Christian martyrs» (Soldiers of the Cross, 1900), directed by John. Perry, "The Story of the Kelly Gang" (1906), directed by D. and N. Tate. Among the other works of the early period are remarkable film directed by Raymond Longford: "Australia is calling» (Australia Calls, 1910), "Forest tramp» (The Bushwhackers, 1925), and others. Since the early 1930s, the country's emerging documentary films.

In 1937, based Australian National Council for the movie (Australian National Film Board), and in 1958 - Australian Film Institute. In 1970 the government of John Gorton established Australian Film Development Corporation (Australian Film Development Commission). In 1975 the government of Gough Uitlema it is converted into Australian Film Commission, which includes production association Film Australia (until withdrawal from the affairs of its leader Stanley Howse it was called Commonwealth Film Unit). In 2007, proclaimed the establishment of a federal agency Screen Australia, which combined Australian Film Commission, Film Australia and the Australian Financial kinokorporatsiyu.
With the support of Rank Organisation in 1950 in Australia removed 15-20 feature films per year. Later, however, the industry begins to fall.
The rise of national cinema accounts for 1970.


Melbourne International Film Festival.

The festival takes place since 1962 and focuses on short films. Melbourne International Film Festival is annually the widest range of outstanding films from around the world. It seeks to celebrate the finest achievements in filmmaking, recognizing artistic excellence in all its forms, including many genres and different disciplines involved in the film industry.
State-level film festivals are held in Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Sydney and other cities.
 
SashaДата: Пятница, 27.02.2015, 17:29 | Сообщение # 14
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The Sydney Opera House


When we say "Australia" or"Sydney", then immediately present a whimsical building of the Sydney
Opera House. She looks like a Swan or a surreal ship attempting to unfurl the
sails, or the giant shells, the Opera is the main character of Sydney.

Inside the building, Sydney Opera House with the two amphitheaters,incised on them — the lobby and bars, and then arches lined with white tiles large bowls, soaring to a height of. In fact implement air project has proved difficult. Problems were caused by the complexity of the geometry and the frequency of occurrence of the forms of shells. Later Uotzon Opera design solved the problem: all the segments of the sink should be carved out of a single spherical surface! They say the solution architect has prompted a
four-year son who showed you how knows how to clean oranges. The skin of citrus
has proven that you can obtain from the adjacent curved surface.

As a result, all of the shells were collected on site,the ribs were "stitched" tensioning cables and arches of the Sydney Opera House were fanning out to form the shell. "Scales" to ceramic tiles closed the gaps between the ribs; just 1 million shingles cover the 4th
"Scales". In the center of the scales are shiny tiles, and along the edges of the mat is thus formed an iridescent surface, about which I dreamed Uotzon.

"The Sun, the light and the clouds will make theroof live," said he. — "So viewers never get tired of watching". The architect was forced to abandon the construction of the Opera House in Sydney because of differences with the new Government.
October 20, 1973, however, the building was officiallyopened by Queen Elizabeth II. During the ceremony, she said: "building the pyramids was accompanied by very sharp differences, but now, through the 4th. years, they are considered one of the wonders of the world. I believe that it will continue with the building of the Sydney Opera House ".


Сообщение отредактировал Sasha - Пятница, 27.02.2015, 17:35
 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Четверг, 12.03.2015, 20:39 | Сообщение # 15
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Цитата Liza ()
the sights around him it
Цитата Liza ()
visit all of these
Цитата Liza ()
Lake Burley Griffin is AN incredibly beautiful place
Цитата Liza ()
on the shores of Burley Griffin THERE is the
 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Четверг, 12.03.2015, 20:51 | Сообщение # 16
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From Belkina Anastasiya
Our unique animals are one of the many reasons people visit our country.
Australia has more than 378 mammal species, 828 bird species, 4000 fish
species, 300 species of lizards, 140 snake species, two crocodile
species and around 50 types of marine mammal.

More than 80 per cent of our plants, mammals, reptiles and frogs are unique to Australia
and are found no-where else. Some of our best-known animals are the
kangaroo, koala, echidna, dingo, platypus, wallaby and wombat.

Australia's native animals can often be difficult to spot in the wild, but you are
guaranteed to see them in our world-class zoos and wildlife parks across
our major cities and regional areas. These include Sydney's Taronga
Zoo, the Rainforest Habitat in Port Douglas, Victoria's Healesville
Sanctuary, South Australia's Cleland Wildlife Park and Queensland's
Australia Zoo, amongst others.

Birds
Of the 828 bird species listed in Australia, about half are found nowhere
else. They range from tiny honeyeaters to the large, flightless emu,
which stands nearly two metres tall. The best chances of seeing emus in
the wild is in grasslands, sclerophyll forests and savannah woodlan

 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Четверг, 12.03.2015, 20:54 | Сообщение # 17
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From Belkina Anastasiya #2

Chris Hemsworth was born in Melbourne, Australia, to Leonie, a teacher of
English, and Craig Hemsworth, a social services counselor. Chris saw
quite a bit of the country in his youth, after his family moved to the
Northern Territory before finally settling on Phillip Island, to the
south of Melbourne. He is brother to actors Liam Hemsworth and Luke
Hemsworth.

In 2004, he unsuccessfully auditioned for the role of Robbie Hunter in the Australian soap opera Home and Away (1988) but was
recalled for the role of Kim Hyde which he played until 2007. In 2006,
he entered the Australian version of Dancing with the Stars (2004) and
his popularity in the soap enabled him to hang on until show 7 (Dancing
with the Stars: Episod (2006) when he became the fifth contestant to be
eliminated.

His first Hollywood appearance was in Звездный путь (2009), but it was his titular role in Тор (2011) which propelled him to
prominence worldwide. He reprised the character in the science fiction
blockbuster Мстители (2012).

Chris's American representative, management company ROAR, also manages actress Elsa Pataky, and it was
through them that the two met, marrying in 2010. The couple have a
daughter and twin sons.


 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Четверг, 12.03.2015, 21:38 | Сообщение # 18
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Sport
Arts
http://www.weekendnotes.com/interesting-facts-about-australia/
sand island called Fraser
 
SashaДата: Суббота, 21.03.2015, 20:15 | Сообщение # 19
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Australia is home to the most interesting and the most bizarre wildlife around the world, with a huge variety of beings. Residents and travelers in Australia can see kangaroos hopping through the streets, koalas, which hang from trees, as well as the deadly snakes hiding everywhere.
 Bats in Australia are terribly huge,actually the largest of these varieties, can weigh up to 1 kg and have a wingspan of more than one and a half meters. In Australia there are flying foxes — they are much more than the average bats that live in flocks and are one of the smartest Australian animals. They can carry viruses that are harmful to humans.
Australia has a unique shelter for bats, the government have set a goal to
save the population of these animals from extinction. In the hospital for bats
Tolga Bat Hospital they are washed, treated and fed. The hospital is located in the town of Atherton. It is staffed by volunteers who help animals until they are not ready to go to the amendment. The bats are being brought for treatment there, even from places located a few hundred kilometers from the shelter.

The shelter doors are open for those wishing to visit the animals all year round. But visit her reviews from
 3 pm to 6pm, because at this time the fun begins and pretty-feeding. Some visitors to this site may seem creepy.
 But in fact all bats are cute and harmless, they truly are only dangerous to insects some inhabitants of the shelter love and mischief all of these volatile mouse will soon recover and go back to their natural habitat.


Сообщение отредактировал Sasha - Суббота, 21.03.2015, 20:18
 
НастяДата: Среда, 25.03.2015, 10:28 | Сообщение # 20
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Great Barrier Reef
 Hervey Bay is a popular tourist town with ample opportunities for whale watching, although there are plenty of other places along the Australian coastline to see whales. The Great Barrier Reef attracts up to two million visitors every year. Careful management, which includes permits for camping and all commercial marine tourism within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, has so far ensured that tourists have a very minimal impact on the reef. UluruKakadu National Park and Fraser Island are major natural attractions. Uluru won the 2013 Qantas Australian Tourism Awards and was named Australia’s best major tourist attraction.
In December 2013, Greg Hunt, the Australian environment minister, approved a plan for dredging to create three shipping terminals as part of the construction of a coalport. According to corresponding approval documents, the process will create around 3 million cubic metres of dredged seabed that will be dumped within the Great Barrier Reef marine park area. 

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ArtemДата: Вторник, 31.03.2015, 08:57 | Сообщение # 21
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Sport in Australia

Sport is important part of the culture in Australia, with a long history in the country dating back to the pre-colonial period. Early sports that were played included cricket, Australian rules football, rugby union, horse racing and netball. Sport evolved with Australian national identity through events like Phar Lap, the Bodyline series and the America's Cup races.
There are a number of professional sport leagues in Australia, including the Australian Football League (Australian rules football), Big Bash League (cricket), the National Basketball League and Women's National Basketball League (basketball), National Rugby League (rugby league), A-League & W-League (association football), Super Rugby (rugby union), ANZ Championship (netball), the Australian Baseball League (baseball) and Sheffield Shield (cricket). Attendance for the AFL, NRL & A-League over the course of a single season tops six million spectators.
The media plays an important part in Australia's sporting landscape. Many sporting events are televised or are covered by the radio. The government has anti-siphoning laws to protect free-to-air stations. Beyond televising live events, there are many sport television shows, sport talk shows on the radio, magazines dedicated to sport and extensive newspaper coverage. Australian sport has also been the subject of Australian made films such as The Club, Australian Rules, The Final Winter and Footy Legends.
As a nation, Australia has competed in many international events including the Olympics and Paralympics, and the Commonwealth Games. The country has a large number of national teams in sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league, basketball, hockey, netball, soccer, softball, water polo and wheelchair rugby. Sport is played by many different populations in Australia including men and women, people with disabilities and Australia's indigenous people.
 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Воскресенье, 05.04.2015, 17:58 | Сообщение # 22
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Bungle Bungle Range is the landform that is the major component of the Purnululu National Park in Western Australia - it is often used as a synonym for the national park area.


The traditional human inhabitants of the area are the Kitja peoples.
Aboriginal people have been living in the area for over 20,000 years
and continue to maintain a strong connection to this ancient landscape.
The national park is managed by the Western Australian Department of
Environment and Conservation in conjunction with the traditional
Aboriginal owners.
The distinctive beehive-shaped towers are made up of sandstones and conglomerates (rocks composed mainly of pebbles and boulders and cemented together by finer material). These sedimentary formations were deposited into the Ord Basin 375 to 350 million years ago, when active faults were altering the landscape. The combined effects of wind from the Tanami Desert and rainfall over millions of years shaped the domes. Weathering also helped create this marvel. Water seeps into the rock, and at night it expands as it gets colder. This creates small cracks which eventually wears out the rocks.
A 7 km diameter circular topographic feature is clearly visible on satellite images of the Bungle Bungle Range ([url=http://maps.google.com/maps?q=Australia&ie=UTF8&om=1&z=12&ll=-17.421408,128.444939&spn=0.128409,0.342636&t=k]Google Maps image[/url]). It is believed that this feature is the eroded remnant of a very ancient meteorite impact crater and is known as the Piccaninny impact structure.
The unusual orange and dark grey banding on the conical rock formations is caused by differences in the
layers of sandstone. The darker bands are on the layers of rock which
hold more moisture, and are a dark algal growth. The orange colored layers are stained with iron and manganese mineral deposits.
 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Воскресенье, 05.04.2015, 18:00 | Сообщение # 23
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The Twelve Apostles is a collection of limestone stacks off the shore of the Port Campbell National Park, by the Great Ocean Road in Victoria, Australia. Their proximity to one another has made the site a popular tourist attraction. Currently there are seven apostles left, the eighth one of the stacks
collapsed dramatically in July 2005. The name remains significant and
spectacular especially in the Australian tourism industry.The apostles were formed by erosion: the harsh and extreme weather conditions from the Southern Ocean gradually eroded the soft limestone to form caves in the cliffs, which then became arches, which in turn collapsed; leaving rock stacks up to 45 metres high. Now because of this erosion there are fewer than ten remaining.[1] The site was known as the Sow and Piglets until 1922 (Muttonbird Island, near Loch Ard Gorge, was the Sow, and the smaller rock stacks were the Piglets);[2] after which it was renamed to The Apostles for tourism purposes. The formation eventually became known as the Twelve Apostles, despite only ever having nine stacks.[3]
In 2002, the Port Campbell Professional Fishermens Association
unsuccessfully attempted to block the creation of a proposed marine
national park at the Twelve Apostles location,[4] but were satisfied with the later Victorian Government decision not to allow seismic exploration at the same site by Benaris Energy;[5] believing it would harm marine life.[6]
The stacks are susceptible to further erosion from the waves. On 3 July 2005, a 50-metre-tall stack collapsed, leaving eight remaining[7] (compare the two pictures from 2002 and 2012). On 25 September 2009, it was thought that another of the stacks had fallen, but this was actually one of the smaller stacks of the Three Sisters formation.[8] The rate of erosion at the base of the limestone pillars is approximately 2 cm per year.[9] Due to wave action eroding the cliff face existing headlands are expected to become new limestone stacks in the future.


 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Воскресенье, 05.04.2015, 18:19 | Сообщение # 24
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The coat of arms of Australia (officially known as the Commonwealth Coat of Arms) is the formal symbol of the Commonwealth of Australia that signifies Commonwealth authority and ownership.[1] The first coat of arms was granted by King Edward VII on 7 May 1908, and the current version was granted by King George V on 19 September 1912, although the 1908 version continued to be used in some contexts, notably appearing on the reverse of the sixpenny coin.


In the top half, from left to right, the states represented are: New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. In the bottom half, from left to right: South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania. Above the shield is the seven-pointed Commonwealth Star or Star of Federation above a blue and gold wreath, forming the crest. Six of the points on the star represent the original six states, while
the seventh point represents the combined territories and any future
states of Australia. In its entirety the shield represents the federation of Australia.The Red Kangaroo and Emu that support the shield have never been designated as official animal emblems of the nation.[3] They owe their unofficial recognition to the fact that they are native Australian fauna (found only on that continent), and likely chosen because they are the  most well-known native Australian animals large enough to be positioned
together in scale holding up the shield. It is often claimed these
animals were chosen because neither animal can move backward, only
forward – i.e. symbolising progress. In reality both animals can move
backwards, although only infrequently. In the background is wreath of Golden Wattle, the official national floral emblem, though the representation of the species is not botanically accurate.[4] At the bottom of the coat of arms is a scroll that contains the name of
the nation. Neither the wreath of wattle nor the scroll are technically part of the design, because they are not described on the Royal Warrant that grants the armorial design.
 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Воскресенье, 05.04.2015, 21:20 | Сообщение # 25
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Natural UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Australia
 
ArtemДата: Пятница, 10.04.2015, 17:57 | Сообщение # 26
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Greater Blue Mountains Area
The Greater Blue Mountains Area consists of 1.03 million ha of sandstone plateaux, escarpments and gorges dominated by temperate eucalypt forest. The site, comprised of eight protected areas, is noted for its representation of the evolutionary adaptation and diversification of the eucalypts in post-Gondwana isolation on the Australian continent. Ninety-one eucalypt taxa occur within the Greater Blue Mountains Area which is also outstanding for its exceptional expression of the structural and ecological diversity of the eucalypts associated with its wide range of habitats. The site provides significant representation of Australia's biodiversity with ten percent of the vascular flora as well as significant numbers of rare or threatened species, including endemic and evolutionary relict species, such as the Wollemi pine, which have persisted in highly-restricted microsites.The Greater Blue Mountains Area (GBMA) is a deeply incised sandstone tableland that encompasses 1.03 million hectares of eucalypt-dominated landscape just inland from Sydney, Australia’s largest city, in south-eastern Australia.  Spread across eight adjacent conservation reserves, it constitutes one of the largest and most intact tracts of protected bushland in Australia.  It also supports an exceptional representation of the taxonomic, physiognomic and ecological diversity that eucalypts have developed: an outstanding illustration of the evolution of plant life.  A number of rare and endemic taxa, including relict flora such as the Wollemi pine, also occur here.  Ongoing research continues to reveal the rich scientific value of the area as more species are discovered. The geology and geomorphology of the property, which includes 300 metre cliffs, slot canyons and waterfalls, provides the physical conditions and visual backdrop to support these outstanding biological values.  The property includes large areas of accessible wilderness in close proximity to 4.5 million people.  Its exceptional biodiversity values are complemented by numerous others, including indigenous and post-European-settlement cultural values, geodiversity, water production, wilderness, recreation and natural beauty
Fraser Island
Fraser Island lies just off the east coast of Australia. At 122 km long, it is the largest sand island in the world. Majestic remnants of tall rainforest growing on sand and half the world’s perched freshwater dune lakes are found inland from the beach. The combination of shifting sand-dunes, tropical rainforests and lakes makes it an exceptional site.
Fraser Island, also known by its Aboriginal name of K’gari, lies along the eastern coast of Australia. The property covers 181,851 hectares and includes all of Fraser Island and several small islands off the island's west coast. It is the world’s largest sand island, offering an outstanding example of ongoing biological, hydrological and geomorphological processes.  The development of rainforest vegetation on coastal dune systems at the scale found on Fraser Island is unique, plus the island boasts the world’s largest unconfined aquifer on a sand island.
The property has exceptional natural beauty with over 250 kilometres of clear sandy beaches with long, uninterrupted sweeps of ocean beach, strikingly coloured sand cliffs, and spectacular blowouts. Inland from the beach are majestic remnants of tall rainforest growing on sandy dunes and half of the world’s perched freshwater dune lakes.


Сообщение отредактировал Artem - Пятница, 10.04.2015, 17:58
 
НастяДата: Пятница, 10.04.2015, 18:11 | Сообщение # 27
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Sydney Opera HouseInaugurated in 1973, the Sydney Opera House is a great architectural work of the 20th century that brings together multiple strands of creativity and innovation in both architectural form and structural design. A great urban sculpture set in a remarkable waterscape, at the tip of a peninsula projecting into Sydney Harbour, the building has had an enduring influence on architecture. The Sydney Opera House comprises three groups of interlocking vaulted ‘shells’ which roof two main performance halls and a restaurant. These shell-structures are set upon a vast platform and are surrounded by terrace areas that function as pedestrian concourses. In 1957, when the project of the Sydney Opera House was awarded by an international jury to Danish architect Jørn Utzon, it marked a radically new approach to construction.

Добавлено (10.04.2015, 18:11)
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In 1981, the Willandra Lakes region was added to the World Heritage List because of the significance of the archaeological and geomorphological features found in the area. These include

  • human skeletal material, tools, shell middens and animal bones that provide some of the oldest evidence of modern humans in the world;
  • landforms and sediments recording events of the Pleistocene Epoch are relatively undistrubed; and
  • baked sediment from uneroded fireplaces records the direction of the earth's magnetic field at the time the fire was used. About 31,000 years ago, the north-south axis moved 120o from its present position and returned again over several thousand years. This is called the "Mungo excursion".

For the past 50,000 years, the climate has changed, changing Mungo in the process. 40,000 years ago Aboriginal people lived here in a rich fertile area with fresh water lakes. The water dried up aproximately 10,000 years ago, and today Mungo is a dry lake bed with numerous sand dunes. Artifacts and remains of animals now extinct are well preserved in the dunes and become uncovered then recovered as the winds blow the sand around.

 
LizaДата: Пятница, 10.04.2015, 23:27 | Сообщение # 28
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At the most westerly point of the Australian continent, Shark Bay, with its islands and the land surrounding it, has three exceptional natural features: its vast sea-grass beds, which are the largest (4,800 km2) and richest in the world; its dugong (‘sea cow’) population; and its stromatolites (colonies of algae which form hard, dome-shaped deposits and are among the oldest forms of life on earth). Shark Bay is also home to five species of endangered mammals.On the Indian Ocean coast at the most westerly point of Australia, Shark Bay’s waters, islands and peninsulas covering a large area of some 2.2 million hectares (of which about 70% are marine waters) have a number of exceptional natural features, including one of the largest and most diverse seagrass beds in the world. However it is for its stromatolites (colonies of microbial mats that form hard, dome-shaped deposits which are said to be the oldest life forms on earth), that the property is most renowned. The property is also famous for its rich marine life including a large population of dugongs, and provides a refuge for a number of other globally threatened species.The Shark Bay region is an area of major zoological importance, primarily due to the isolation habitats on peninsulas and islands being isolated from the disturbance that has occurred elsewhere. Of the 26 species of endangered Australian mammals, five are found on Bernier and Dorre Islands. These are the boodie (burrowing bettong), rufous hare-wallaby, banded hare-wallaby, the Shark Bay mouse and the western barred bandicoot. The Shark Bay region has a rich avifauna with over 230 species, or 35%, of Australia's bird species having been recorded. The site is renowned for its marine fauna, the population of about 11,000 dugong, for example, is one of the largest in the world. Humpback and southern right whales use the bay as a migratory staging post. Bottlenose dolphin occur in the bay, and green turtle and loggerhead turtle nest on the beaches. Large numbers of sharks including bay whaler, tiger shark and hammerhead are readily observed. There is also an abundant population of rays, including the manta ray.

Сообщение отредактировал Liza - Пятница, 10.04.2015, 23:35
 
АнастасияДмитриевнаДата: Вторник, 14.04.2015, 20:37 | Сообщение # 29
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So, I am happy to congratulate you on the finish of the project! On the 6th of May you will have the test (45 questions).
Now it is your time to prepare for the test and read all the information :)
 

 
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